Goal 13: Climate action
Considering its economic structure and geographic features, the Republic of Moldova is highly vulnerable to climate change. A key area of exposure is the fact that agriculture provides livelihood opportunities to more than half of the population, and the sector is technologically underdeveloped and not sufficiently adapted to climate change risks. Droughts are the most damaging climate-related hazards, causing in 2012 directed losses amounting to 6 per cent of GDP. Subsistence-oriented farms and rural households are particularly vulnerable, because of a lack of means for species diversification and issues of access to public subsidies and insurance services. In the southern part of the country, the geographic and weather peculiarities magnify the economic vulnerability of farmers. Besides having a direct impact on the agricultural sector, climate changes poses risks for the quality and availability of water. Climate change also increases the risks of deaths and diseases related to heat waves and inundations. The observable impact of climate change also includes lowering the regeneration capacity of forests, trees density and species survival. Higher incidence of extreme weather and climate inducing natural hazards is also expected to increase the energy demand and the pressures on the physical infrastructure.
In the Global Agenda 2030, SDG 13 focuses on adaptability and on fostering resilience to climate change. At the national level, the climate-related risks are well known and are adequately reflected in the national development framework. The Climate Change Adaptation Strategy has been conceived to enhance the resilience to climate-induced hazards, including through halving the climate change vulnerability in the priority sectors, including agricultural, water resources, health, forestry, energy and transport. Integrating climate-change adaptation policies in sector-level policies is another national priority. Additionally, the country aims to develop its institutional framework in the climate change domain and to raise awareness of all stakeholders, including the population, regarding climate change-related risks and adaptation measures.