According to the 2020 Report on the Status of Organic Agriculture and Industry in Moldova, developed by EkoConnect, due to its good soils, 63% of Moldova’s land cover is used for cropping and that’s the highest ratio in Europe.
86% of the land used for cropping land is under arable farming (mostly maize, sunflower and wheat which make up together 80%). 143,000 ha of orchards (mostly apples, followed by stone fruits and walnuts) as well as 126,000 ha of vineyards signify the intensive type of land-use in Moldova.
The excessive use of synthetic fertilisers and chemical pesticides, permanent monocultures, as well as the lack of crop rotation leads to a reduced biodiversity and level of organic matter in the soil.
As a result, the soil degrades and is more vulnerable to climate change effects, such as drought and heavy rains, bringing to the soil erosion from wind and water. Therefore, soil fertility together with its productivity, decreases constantly.
Unsustainable agricultural practices from Moldova amplify the effects of climate change by greenhouse gas emissions. However, the agricultural sector in Moldova is suffering because of climate changes effects more than it is contributing to them.
To strengthen the resilience of the sector and to make it less vulnerable to the new climate conditions and to improve its productivity, it is essential to enrich the organic matter in the soil and biodiversity through climate-smart agriculture.
With the support of UNDP and GEF, www.studii.movca.md platform was developed, as well as a continuous training program – Organic Farming System – which already has 1,930 registered users.
Organic farming combines best environmental practices, a high level of biodiversity, preservation of natural resources and applying high standards of animal welfare.
* * *
The organic farming principles of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements are the following:
- Principle of health, according to which organic agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plants, animals, human sand planet as one and indivisible. Organic agriculture is intended to produce high quality, nutritious food that contributes to preventive health care and well-being.
- Principle of ecology, according to which organic agriculture should be based on living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain them. Organic agriculture should attain ecological balance through the design of farming systems, establishment of habitats and maintenance of genetic and agricultural diversity.
- Principle of fairness, according to which organic agriculture should build on relationships that ensure fairness about the common environment and life opportunities. Fairness is characterized by equity, respect, justice, and stewardship of the shared world, both among people and in their relations to other living beings.
- Principle of care, according to which organic agriculture should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment. Organic agriculture should prevent significant risks by adopting appropriate technologies.