Goal 5: Gender equality
Although gender equality, as one of the Millennium Development Goals, has been on the national agenda for many years, women still face important challenges in terms of empowerment. Women in Moldova continue to be under-represented in the political and public decision-making process. Women represent one in five of Members of Parliament or local mayors, one in four business managers or heads of ministries, and one in three local councillors. The employment rate of women (37%) is lower that of men (42%) even though women’s proportion in the total population is a bit higher (52%, compared to 48%). The employment rate is lower for women with children (51% for those with one child and 48% for those with three or more children, compared to 58% for women with no children) and 27% of employed women are involved in informal jobs. On the other hand, only 5% of men benefit from allowances for raising children (compared to 94% of women) and only 22% of teachers are men. About 66% of women’s total working time is made up by unpaid work (mainly domestic and care work), while men allocate twice as little time for this activity. On average, men get 12.4% higher wages than women. One in four women (27%) above 15 years old have experienced at least one type of violence in the family over the last 12 months.
The 2030 Agenda represents an opportunity for Moldova to switch from institutional and regulatory development to actual elimination of phenomena like gender-based discrimination and prevention of violence against women and girls so that their effect on the gender inequality in the country is minimized and women’s rights are fully realized. Moldova’s women and men need an equitable approach in social insurance policies, in social protection and health care, accompanied by relevant infrastructures and services. They should enjoy equal treatment regarding labour and payment, distribution of unpaid domestic and care work, access to and delivery of goods and services, and social security. Women must be promoted in entrepreneurship and facilitated through being given access to financial resources. Women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making need to be ensured.